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15. References

[J11]Järvi L, Grimmond CSB & Christen A (2011) The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Los Angeles and Vancouver. J. Hydrol. 411, 219-237.
[W16]Ward HC, Kotthaus S, Järvi L and Grimmond CSB 2016: Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): development and evaluation at two UK sites. Urban Climate. 18, 1-32 doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.001
[G91]Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1991) An Evaporation-Interception Model for Urban Areas. Water Resour. Res. 27, 1739-1755.
[O2003]Offerle B, Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2003) Parameterization of Net All-Wave Radiation for Urban Areas. J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1157-1173.
[L2011]Loridan T, CSB Grimmond, BD Offerle, DT Young, T Smith, L Järvi, F Lindberg (2011) Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): longwave radiation parameterization & seasonality related developments. Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology 50, 185-202, doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2474.1
[lucy]Allen L, F Lindberg, CSB Grimmond (2011) Global to city scale model for anthropogenic heat flux, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 1990-2005.
[lucy2]Lindberg F, Grimmond CSB, Nithiandamdan Y, Kotthaus S, Allen L (2013) Impact of city changes and weather on anthropogenic heat flux in Europe 1995–2015, Urban Climate,4,1-13 paper
[I11]Iamarino M, Beevers S & Grimmond CSB (2011) High-resolution (space, time) anthropogenic heat emissions: London 1970-2025. International J. of Climatology. 32, 1754-1767.
[G91OHM]Grimmond CSB, Cleugh HA & Oke TR (1991) An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmos. Env. 25B, 311-174.
[GO99QS]Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999a) Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 922-940.
[GO2002]Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2002) Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) J. Appl. Meteorol. 41, 792-810.
[AnOHM17]Sun T, Wang ZH, Oechel W & Grimmond CSB (2017) The Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM v1.0): Methodology to Determine Bulk Storage Heat Flux Coefficients. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. doi: 10.5194/gmd-2016-300.
[OGF2005]Offerle B, CSB Grimmond, K Fortuniak (2005) Heat storage & anthropogenic heat flux in relation to the energy balance of a central European city center. International J. of Climatology. 25: 1405–1419 doi: 10.1002/joc.1198
[G86]Grimmond CSB, Oke TR and Steyn DG (1986) Urban water-balance 1. A model for daily totals. Water Resour Res 22: 1397-1403.
[Leena2014]Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H & Strachan IB (2014) Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.
[CG2001]Cleugh HA & Grimmond CSB (2001) Modelling regional scale surface energy exchanges and CBL growth in a heterogeneous, urban-rural landscape. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 98, 1-31.
[Shiho2015]Onomura S, Grimmond CSB, Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2015) Meteorological forcing data for urban outdoor thermal comfort models from a coupled convective boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme Urban Climate,11, 1-23 doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001
[FL2008]Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2008) SOLWEIG 1.0 – Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings. International Journal of Biometeorology 52, 697–713.
[FL2011]Lindberg F & Grimmond C (2011) The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperature in urban areas: model development and evaluation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 105:3, 311-323.
[Ko17]Kokkonen TV, Grimmond CSB, Räty O, Ward HC, Christen A, Oke TR, Kotthaus S & Järvi L (in review) Sensitivity of Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) to downscaling of reanalysis forcing data.
[Best2014]Best MJ & Grimmond CSB (2014) Importance of initial state and atmospheric conditions for urban land surface models’ performance. Urban Climate 10: 387-406. doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2013.10.006.
[D74]Dyer AJ (1974) A review of flux-profile relationships. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 7, 363-372.
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[VG00]Voogt JA & Grimmond CSB (2000) Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban terrain. J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1679-1699.
[Ka07]Kanda M, Kanega M, Kawai T, Moriwaki R & Sugawara H (2007). Roughness lengths for momentum and heat derived from outdoor urban scale models. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 46, 1067-1079.
[GO99]Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999) Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1262-1292.
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[CW86]Calder IR and Wright IR (1986) Gamma Ray Attenuation Studies of Interception From Sitka Spruce: Some Evidence for an Additional Transport Mechanism. Water Resour. Res., 22(3), 409–417.
[Ok87]Oke TR (1987) Boundary Layer Climates. Routledge, London, UK
[Br03]Breuer L, Eckhardt K and Frede H-G (2003) Plant parameter values for models in temperate climates. Ecol. Model. 169, 237-293.
[Ja76]Jarvis PG (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B., 273, 593-610.
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[SV06]Sailor DJ and Vasireddy C (2006) Correcting aggregate energy consumption data account for variability in local weather. Environ. Modell. Softw. 21, 733-738.
[Ko14]Konarska J, Lindberg F, Larsson A, Thorsson S and Holmer B (2014) Transmissivity of solar radiation through crowns of single urban trees—application for outdoor thermal comfort modelling. Theor Appl Climatol 117:363–376.
[Re90]Reindl DT, Beckman WA and Duffie JA (1990) Diffuse fraction correlation. Sol Energy 45:1–7.
[LG2012]Loridan T and Grimmond CSB (2012) Characterization of energy flux partitioning in urban environments: links with surface seasonal properties. J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51,219-241 doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-038.1
[H1988]Högström U (1988) Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 42, 55–78.
[Kent2017a]Kent CW, CSB Grimmond, J Barlow, D Gatey, S Kotthaus, F Lindberg, CH Halios 2017a: Evaluation of urban local-scale aerodynamic parameters: implications for the vertical profile of wind and source areas Boundary Layer Meteorology 164,183–213 doi: 10.1007/s10546-017-0248-z
[Kent2017b]Kent CW, S Grimmond, D Gatey 2017b: Aerodynamic roughness parameters in cities: inclusion of vegetation Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2017.07.016
[S2000]Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Cropley F, Offerle B, Su H (2000) Measurements of CO2 and energy fluxes over a mixed hardwood forest in the mid-westerm United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 103, 357-374.
[R95]Ruimy A, Jarvis PG, Baldocchi DD, Saugier B (1995) CO2 Fluxes over Plant Canopies and Solar Radiation: A Review. Advances in Ecological Research, 26.
[SL04]Sailor DJ, Lu L (2004) A top-down methodology for developing diurnal and seasonal anthropogenic heating profiles for urban areas. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 2737-2648.
[B2017]Bellucco V, Marras S, Grimmond CSB, Jarvi L, Sirca C, Spano D (2017) Modelling the biogenic CO2 exchange in urban and non-urban ecosystems through the assessment of light-response curve parameters. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 236, 113-122.
[FWC2002]Flanagan LB, Wever LA, Carlson PJ (2002) Seasonal and interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and carbon balance in a northern temperate grassland. Global Change Biology. 8, 599-615.
[J12]Järvi L, Nordbo A, Junninen H, Riikonen A, Moilanen J, Nikinmaa E, Vesala T (2012) Seasonal and annual variation of carbon dioxide surface fluxes in Helsinki, Finland, in 2006-2010. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 8475-8489.
[B05]Brutsaert, W. (2005), Hydrology: an introduction, Cambridge Univ Pr, Cambridge.