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4.2.15. Typical Values

Other values to add - please let us know

4.2.15.1. Generic Properties

Property

General Type

Value

Description

Reference

Albedo

Non Vegetated

0.09

Paved Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo

Non Vegetated

0.15

Buildings Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo

Non Vegetated

0.19

Bare Soil, Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo

Non Vegetated

0.12

Paved

Oke (1987)

Albedo

Non Vegetated

0.15

Buildings

Oke (1987)

Albedo

Non Vegetated

0.21

Bare Soil

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Non Vegetated

0.95

Paved

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Non Vegetated

0.91

Buildings

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Non Vegetated

0.93

Bare Soil

Oke (1987)

Surface Water storage capacity

Non Vegetated

0.48

Paved

Davies and Hollis (1981)

Surface Water storage capacity

Non Vegetated

0.25

Buildings

Falk and Niemczynowicz (1978)

Albedo

Vegetation

0.10

EveTr

Albedo

Vegetation

0.12

DecTr

Albedo

Vegetation

0.18

Grass

Albedo

Vegetated

0.10

EveTr Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo

Vegetated

0.16

DecTr Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo

Vegetated

0.19

Grass Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo

Vegetated

0.10

EveTr

Oke (1987)

Albedo

Vegetated

0.18

DecTr

Oke (1987)

Albedo

Vegetated

0.21

Grass

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Vegetated

0.98

EveTr

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Vegetated

0.98

DecTr

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Vegetated

0.93

Grass

Oke (1987)

water Storage Minimum capacity (mm)

Vegetated

1.3

EveTr

Breuer et al. (2003)

water Storage Minimum capacity (mm)

Vegetated

0.3

DecTr

Breuer et al. (2003)

water Storage Minimum capacity (mm)

Vegetated

1.9

Grass

Breuer et al. (2003)

Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Vegetated

1.3

EveTr

Breuer et al. (2003)

Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Vegetated

0.8

DecTr

Grimmond and Oke (1991)

Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Vegetated

1.9

Grass

Breuer et al. (2003)

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.12

DecTr

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.18

Grass

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.10

EveTr Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.16

DecTr Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.19

Grass Helsinki

Järvi et al. (2014)

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.10

EveTr

Oke (1987)

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.18

DecTr

Oke (1987)

Albedo Max(leaf on)

Vegetated

0.21

Grass

Oke (1987)

Emissivity *View factors should be taken into account

Vegetated

0.98

EveTr

Oke (1987)

Emissivity *View factors should be taken into account

Vegetated

0.98

DecTr

Oke (1987)

Emissivity *View factors should be taken into account

Vegetated

0.93

Grass

Oke (1987)

Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min & max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).

Vegetated

1.3

EveTr

Breuer et al. (2003)

Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]*Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).

Vegetated

0.3

DecTr

Breuer et al. (2003)

Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces).

Vegetated

1.9

Grass

Breuer et al. (2003)

Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces)

Vegetated

1.3

EveTr

Breuer et al. (2003)

Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces)

Vegetated

0.8

DecTr

Grimmond and Oke (1991)

Maximum water storage capacity of this surface [mm] *Min and max values are to account for seasonal variation (e.g. leaf-on/leaf-off differences for vegetated surfaces)

Vegetated

1.9

Grass

Breuer et al. (2003)

AlbedoMin

Water

0.1

Water

Oke (1987)

AlbedoMax

Water

0.1

Water

Oke (1987)

Emissivity

Water

0.95

Water

Oke (1987)

Minimum water storage capacity of this surface [mm]

Water

0.5

Water

Maximum water storage capacity for upper surfaces (i.e. canopy)

Water

0.5

Water

WetThreshold

water

0.5

Water

StateLimit *Upper limit to the surface state [mm] *State cannot exceed this value. *Set to a large value (e.g. 20000 mm = 20 m) if the water body is substantial (lake| river| etc) or a small value (e.g. 10 mm) if water bodies are very shallow (e.g. fountains).

Water

20000

Water

RadMeltFactor

Snow

0.0016

Hourly radiation melt factor of snow [mm W-1 h-1]

TempMeltFactor

Snow

0.12

Hourly temperature melt factor of snow [mm °C -1 h-1]

AlbedoMin

Snow

0-1

Minimum snow albedo [-] - 0.18

Järvi et al. (2014)

AlbedoMax *Maximum snow albedo (fresh snow) [-]

Snow

0.85

Järvi et al. (2014)

Emissivity *Effective surface emissivity. *View factors should be taken into account

Snow

0.99

Snow

Järvi et al. (2014)

tau_a *Time constant for snow albedo aging in cold snow [-]

Snow

0.018

Järvi et al. (2014)

tau_f *Time constant for snow albedo aging in melting snow [-]

Snow

0.11

Järvi et al. (2014)

PrecipiLimAlb

Snow

2

Limit for hourly precipitation when the ground is fully covered with snow. Then snow albedo is reset to AlbedoMax [mm]

snowDensMin

Snow

100

Fresh snow density [kg m-3]

snowDensMax

Snow

400

Maximum snow density [kg m-3]

tau_r *Time constant for snow density ageing [-]

Snow

0.043

Järvi et al. (2014)

CRWMin *Minimum water holding capacity of snow [mm]

Snow

0.05

Järvi et al. (2014)

CRWMax *Maximum water holding capacity of snow [mm]

Snow

0.20

Järvi et al. (2014)

PrecipLimSnow

Snow

2.2

Temperature limit when precipitation falls as snow [°C]

Auer (1974) [Au74]

SoilDepth

Snow

350

Depth of sub-surface soil store [mm] *depth of soil beneath the surface

SoilStoreCap

Soil

150

  • Capacity of sub-surface soil store [mm]

  • how much water can be stored in the sub-surface soil when at maximum capacity.

  • (SoilStoreCap must not be greater than SoilDepth.)

SatHydraulicCond

Soil

0.0005

Hydraulic conductivity for saturated soil [mm s-1]

SoilDensity

Soil

1.16

Soil density [kg m-3]

InfiltrationRate

Soil

Infiltration rate [mm h-1]

OBS_SMDepth

Soil

Depth of soil moisture measurements [mm]

OBS_SMCap

Soil

Maxiumum observed soil moisture [m3 m-3 or kg kg-1]

OBS_SoilNotRocks

Soil

Fraction of soil without rocks [-]